Stakeholder Democracy: Represented Democracy in a Time of Fear  Available Now.


The Way Forward Beyond Agenda 21



APRIL 1997

What people have said about the book:

'for a realistic discussion of the UN programme for sustainable development... look no further. This book shows us where we are, and spells out clearly how much more needs to be done'

Matthew Taylor MP, Liberal Democrat Environment Spokesman

'a very important contribution to the environmental debate five years on from Rio'
Richard C I Bate, Director, International Chamber of Commerce

'a timely, well-researched, enjoyable read'
Cliff Curtis, Political Adviser, Greenpeace International

'offers the reader an opportunity to see what Rio was all about, how much we have achieved and signposts for the future. It is required reading for all concerned about the impact of the UN process on international, national and local environment and policies'
Barbara Young, RSPB

Edited by Felix Dodds

In the years since the Rio Earth Summit, what has been achieved? "The Way Forward" is the essential guide to the progress made at the intergovernmental level and also by national governments, NGOs and grassroots agencies; considers the successes and failures of the last five years; and identifies the main developments that need to be addressed in the future. The contributors come from a variety of disciplines, and all are leading experts in their fields. The essays represent all the interest groups involved - NGOs, governments, international agencies, the business community and community action groups

Introduction by Jonathon Porritt

Preface by Gus Speth Administrator UNDP

Part One looks at the key agreements of the Rio Summit, what has happened since 1992, and how they might develop in the future:

Authors: Chip Linder, Felix Dodds and Tom Bigg, Peter Newell, Fiona McConnell, Carole Saint-Laurent, Camila Toulmin, Philippe  Sands

Part Two assesses the roles and responsibilities of the major stakeholders in implementing the agreements reached at Rio:

Authors: Peter Mucke,  Jeb Brugman, Borg Stigson, Winstan Gereluk and Lucien Royer, Zonny Wood

Part Three identifies the key trends which are likely to shape the next five years

Authors: Carolen lucus, Arden Clarke;, G Lawrence; t, B Bramble;  E Dowdeswell.

Part Four offers perspectives for the future:

Authors: Derek Osborn; Niton Desai; From the NGOs, P Padbury; From Northern Governments, K Topfer; From Southern Governments Ambassador Cavalcanti

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Global Citizen


This highly readable collection focuses on the issue of global civil society. This is (rather narrowly) defined as 'the arena in which people come together to advance their interests they hold in common, not for profit or political power, but because they care enough about something to take collective action' (Edwards, p.2). There is an immediate problem with this definition. The focus of the book is on NGOs and social movements. Such movements are certainly a key part of global civil society, but are not all of it.”

Kiely, Ray

Edited by Michael Edwards and John Gaventa

Civil society, or citizen's groups, have taken centre stage in international policy debates and global problem solving. They hold out the promise of a global community and global governance. This volume, by leading scholars and participants, shows how to understand the changes that are occurring, particularly in relation to the international institutions involved. It includes case studies from all the major social movements of the 1990s.

Introduction  by Michael Edwards

Part 1 Conceptual frameworks

Ethical globalization by John Clark

Transnational civil society  by Ann Florini

Part II Global Campaigns Global Civil Society and the International Financial Institutions

Transnational civil society coalitions and the World Bank by David Brown and Jonathan Fox

Information, location and legitimacy by Paul Nelson

 Constructing a Southern constituency for global advocacy by Manuel Chiriboga

The IMF and civil society  by Jan  Aart Scholte

Civil society participation in multilateral lending operations by Diana Tussie and Maria Fernanda Tuozzo

Part III Global Campaigns

Landmines: NGO-government collaboration by Matthew Scott

Jubilee 2000 by Carole Collins, Zie Gariyo and Tony Burdon

Cross-border organizing around alternatives to free trade  by John Cavanagh, Sarah Anderson and Karen Hansen Kuhn

 National coalitions and global campaigns: The International Children's Rights Movement by Tom Lent and Roy Trivedy

The global spread of participatory approaches to development by Kamal Singh

Global citizen action on the environment  by Peter Newell

From the corridors of power to the global negotiating table by Felix Dodds

Part  IV Lessons Learned

 International networking for women's human rights  by Charlotte Bunch with Peggy Antrobus, Samantha Frost and Niamh Reilly

Community exchanges for urban transformation  by Sheela Patel, Joel Bolnick and Diana Mitlin

 NGOs, research and international advocacy  by Caroline Harper

 Effective international campaigns by Jennifer Chapman

Global citizen action  by John Gaventa


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Multi Stakeholder Processes


January 2002

"This book analyses new forms of inclusive decision-making processes based on participation of different groups with a stake in sustainable development issues".

Giusy Chiovato Rambaldo

"This practical guide explains how multi-stakeholder processes can be organised and implemented in order to resolve the complex issues in and around sustainable forms of development, whilst recognising the rights of, and risks faced by, all parties."


By Minu Hemmati with Felix Dodds and Jasmin Enayati and Jan McHarry

Governments, business, international bodies and local groups are turning to multi-stakeholder processes to find practical ways forward. This book explains how MSPs can be organized to deliver their potential for successful resolution of complex issues and for sustainable development. It includes detailed examples and provides practical checklists, explaining how to get beyond adversarial politics and achieve positive results.


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Earth Summit 2002




'An extraordinary review of a complex and evolving dilemma. We should all set aside time to read it thoroughly'

‘The 1992 Earth Summit was a real milestone in global environmental diplomacy. This timely and challenging book provides both a progress report and a compelling agenda for Earth Summit 2002 and beyond'

‘If the
first Earth Summit was high on idealism but low on practicality, Earth Summit 2002 threatens to reverse the pattern. This vital pre-summit reader manages to combine the highest and best of both’

Edited by Felix Dodds with Toby Middleton

The success of “Rio+10” in Johannesburg in 2002 is vital for the world in the coming century. In this volume, leading participants, from ministers, UN officials, and NGOs present a frank view of the lack of progress since Rio. They set out the goals the international community must aim for and the means of achieving them. Earth Summit 2002 will be a key text and a catalyst for action for the huge array of organizations and individuals involved in environmental and developmental issues and the political processes surrounding them.

Foreword From Rio to Earth Summit 2002 by Klaus Toepfer

Introduction by Derek Osborn

Preface by Felix Dodds

Chapters by:  Simon Upton, Nitin Desai, Victoria Elias, Jeb Brugman, Winston Gereluk and Lucien Royer, Minu Hemmati, Maximo Kalaw, Stephan Bass, Dieke Peters, Cletus A Avoka, Barbara Bramble,  Andrew Simms, Rob Lake, Margaret Brusasco Mackenzie,  Herbert Giradet,  Nina Rao, Frans de Man, Jagjit Plabe and Pieter van de Gaag, Chip Lindner,  Gro Harlem Brindtland, Laurie Michaelis, John Gummer MP, Rosalie Gardner, Jurgan Maier, Felix Dodds,


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How To Lobby


'How to Lobby has been a great tool for the trade union movement. It has helped our members understand the intergovernmental process and therefore to be much more effective. This book is a must for anyone involved in international politics'
LUCIEN ROYER, Global Union's Director of Occupational, Health, Safety and

Felix Dodds is the Milo Minderbender of the Stakeholder world'

'Stakeholder Forum is a little-known organisation that has nevertheless been the source of many of the most hopeful initiatives at the summit (World Summit on Sustainable Development)' GEOFFREY LEAN, Independent on Sunday

'Civil society's efforts to advance the cause of sustainable development require clever, focused and long-term advocacy, by ever greater numbers of activists. 'Mine is a Cafe Latte' is an invaluable tool for anyone wishing to understand and contribute effectively to the competition of good ideas that intergovernmental meetings should be'
PAUL HOHNEN, former Strategic Director, Greenpeace International

"A genius for convincing the most sceptical legislator of the eminent reasonableness of the sustainable development case."
former Secretary of State for the Environment


By Felix Dodds with Michael Strauss


This is a guide on how to lobby at intergovernmental meetings, whether as a stakeholder or a government official. Many of the approaches taken are also relevant to national lobbying. The guide will take you through preparing your ideas, consulting with others, helping to understand how governments prepare and how to understand the terms used in these meetings. Organizations spend considerable resources taking staff to international meetings, often without understanding how these meetings work. This book should help make those resources better spent, as those attending should be able to better understand what they are going to attend. If you have not lobbied or just want to have a better understanding of how the intergovernmental governance process works then this book should give you an insight and tools to make your work easier.




  1.  Why attend?
  2.  evolving stakeholder involvement
  3. preparation and how to be effective
  4. scenario building and SWOT analyses
  5. attendance and participation
  6. negotiations - some tips
  7. structuring papers and statements
  8. brackets, terms, jargon and acronyms
  9. the media
  10. getting there maps, addresses, resources
  11. UN conferences and commissions.
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Plain Language Gude to WSSD


January 2005

"The guide will be widely used in the Commonwealth and beyond to promote understanding and engagement in the WSSD process at all levels."

Don McKinnon Commonwealth Secretary General

The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002 brought together thousands of delegates who mapped out the future of the global sustainable development agenda. The resulting technical document, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI), identifies priorities in the implementation of Agenda 21 and other international agreements and commitments that will take these priorities forward. This plain language version provides an invaluable reference to the outcomes of the WSSD by explaining the JPOI clearly for the lay person and expert alike.


Foreword by Commonwealth Secretary General

Preface by Felix Dodds and Chip Lindner


Part I: The JPOI

  • Poverty Eradication
  • Changing Unsustainable Patterns of Consumption and Production
  • Protecting and Managing the Natural Resource Base of Economic and Social Development
  • Globalization
  • Health
  • Small Island Developing States
  • Africa
  • Other Regional Initiatives
  • Means of Implementation
  • Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development

Part II: Implementing the JPOI

WSSD Partnerships for Sustainable Development

Implementing WSSD: The Role of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development


Cross-cutting Issues

Source Texts




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Humanand Environemntal Security

“A highly significant and relevant publication! The authors describe in admirable clarity a daunting array of contemporary global challenges and offer realistic and achievable responses. Both the public and policy makers alike are left in no doubt as to the urgency of concerted international action to address threats that affect us all.”

Javier Solana EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy

Edited by Felix Dodds (Executive Director Stakeholder Forum)

and Tim Pippard (Content Editor Jane's Information Group)


Security has tended to be seen as based on military force, yet this illusion is crumbling, literally and figuratively, before our eyes in the conflict zones of Iraq, Afghanistan and equatorial Africa. It is now clear that real human security, defined by the Commission on Human Security as 'protecting vital freedoms', can only be achieved if the full range of issues that underpin human security - including environmental integrity - are addressed. This ground-breaking book, authored by prominent international decision-makers, tackles the global human security problem across the range of core issues. The authors identify the causes of insecurity, articulate the linkages between the different elements of human security and outline an agenda for engaging stakeholders from across the globe in building the foundations of genuine and lasting human security for all nations and all people.


 Introduction       Celso Amorim (Brazilian Foreign Minister)

Foreword           Dr Klaus Toepfer (Executive Director UNEP)


Chapters by: David Hannay, Anders Lidén and Anna Karin Eneström, Oliver Richmond and Jason Franks, Marian Hobbs, Noeleen Heyzer Jan PronkHilary Benn  MP, Melinda Kimble ,  Devyani Gupta , Dr. Christine Durbak and Dr. Claudia Strauss, Jeffrey McNeely, Henrique Cavalacanti, Patricia Wouters ,  Anna Tibaijuka,  Jim Garrison, Sabin Mendibil Intxaurraga, Hannah Griffiths, Felix Dodds, Serge Lepeltier


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Negotiating and Implementing MEAs: A Manual for NGOs


May 2007 Downloadable from


Foreword Achim Steiner UNEP Executive Director



 Written by  Felix Dodds (SF), Megan Howell (SF), Michael Strauss (Earth Media), Maria Onestini (CEDEA) and UNEP.

Introduction: Felix Dodds and Michael Strauss

 Written by  Felix Dodds (SF), Megan Howell (SF), Michael Strauss (Earth Media), Maria Onestini (CEDEA and UNEP.

Over the past several decades, the international community has established a range of legally binding agreements designed to tackle the worlds most serious environmental challenges. Each of these Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) focuses on a specific problem, be it hazardous waste, trade in endangered species, climate change or some other prevalent concerns at the time these agreements were developed. In parallel, the role played by NGOs in the international negotiation of MEAs and then, in their national and local application has grown considerably.

In this context and given these new challenges, this Manual attempts to link together two areas of MEA formulation and civil society participation. Its' goal is to both strengthen multi-stakeholder participation and increase political momentum for effective MEA development, implementation and enforcement.

The format of the Manual follows the sequence of governments’ and NGOs’ actual work on conferences and treaties. It provides background information and approaches, ‘inside the process’ guidance and expert advice on how stakeholders can effectively engage in developing and implementing MEAs.

This work is a collaborative effort made by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and three organizations that have teamed to produce this Manual: Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future, el Centro de Estudios Ambientales - CEDEA and Earth Media.

This project is part of UNEP’s extensive involvement with MEAs – a role that includes serving as secretariat for specific MEAs, providing cooperation and support functions on many issues for national governments, intergovernmental organizations, NGOs and local authorities. It is a companion to UNEPs Guidelines on Compliance with and Enforcement of MEAs (2002), and its' Manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (2006).



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NGO Diplomacy

The Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental Negotiations
Edited by Michele M. Betsill and Elisabeth Corell
Foreword by Felix Dodds

"Without doubt, this book will become the new standard in efforts to explore the roles that NGOs play in international environmental negotiations."
--Oran Young, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara

Over the past thirty years nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played an increasingly influential role in international negotiations, particularly on environmental issues. NGO diplomacy has become, in the words of one organizer, an "international experiment in democratizing intergovernmental decision making." But there has been little attempt to determine the conditions under which NGOs make a difference in either the process or the outcome of international negotiations. This book presents an analytic framework for the systematic and comparative study of NGO diplomacy in international environmental negotiations. Chapters by experts on international environmental policy apply this framework to assess the effect of NGO diplomacy on specific negotiations on environmental and sustainability issues.

The proposed analytical framework offers researchers the tools with which to assess whether and how NGO diplomats affect negotiation processes, outcomes, or both, and through comparative analysis the book identifies factors that explain variation in NGO influence, including coordination of strategy, degree of access, institutional overlap, and alliances with key states. The empirical chapters use the framework to evaluate the degree of NGO influence on such negotiations as the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol negotiations on global climate change, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.


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